07/05/2024: Cornelia Vogel @ UniMi

Tuesday, May 7, 2024 - 11:30
Sala di rappresentanza
Dipartimento di Matematica
Università degli Studi di Milano
Via Cesare Saldini 50

SPEAKER: Cornelia Vogel (Universität Tübingen)

Concentration of measure for thermal distributions of quantum states

We generalize Lévy’s Lemma, a concentration-of-measure result for the uniform probability distribution on high-dimensional spheres, to a more general class of measures, so-called GAP measures. For any given density matrix ρ on a separable Hilbert space H, GAP(ρ) is the most spread out probability measure on the unit sphere of H that has density matrix ρ and thus forms the natural generalization of the uniform distribution. We prove concentration-of-measure whenever the largest eigenvalue ||ρ|| of ρ is small. With the help of this result we generalize the well-known and important phenomenon of ”canonical typicality” to GAP measures. Canonical typicality is the statement that for ”most” pure states ψ of a given ensemble, the reduced density matrix of a sufficiently small subsystem is very close to a ψ-independent matrix. So far, canonical typicality is known for the uniform distribution on finite-dimensional spheres, corresponding to the micro-canonical ensemble. Our result shows that canonical typicality holds in general for systems described by a density matrix with small eigenvalues. Since certain GAP measures are quantum analogs of the canonical ensemble of classical mechanics, our results can also be regarded as a version of equivalence of ensembles. The talk is based on joint work with Stefan Teufel and Roderich Tumulka.